.learning.objectives.

Chemistry 107 – Dr. Brown – Spring 2014

Learning Objectives

 

All of these objectives could be more fully stated by saying, "Upon completion of this part of the class, the student should be able to...." These are meant to give you some idea of what is expected of you. However, you should try not to interpret these objectives too narrowly. For those objectives that involve calculations or problem solving, your homework assignments should give you examples of the types of problems intended.

 

[ Week 1: 1/13 - 1/17 ] [ Week 2: 1/15 - 1/24 ] [ Week 3: 1/27 - 1/31 ][ Week 4: 2/3 - 2/7 ]
[ Week 5: 2/10 - 2/14 ][ Week 6: 2/17 - 2/21 ][ Week 7: 2/24 - 2/28 ][ Week 8: 3/3 - 3/7 ]
[ Week 9: 3/17 - 3/21 ][ Week 10: 3/24 - 3/28 ][ Week 11: 3/31 - 4/4 ] [ Week 12: 4/7 - 4/11 ]
[ Week 13: 4/14 - 4/18 ][ Week 14: 4/21 - 4/25 ][ Week 15: 4/28 - 4/29 ]

 

Week #1

First day (1/13) Introduction to the course

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • explain what is expected of you in CHEM 107.
  • describe connections between chemistry and engineering.

 

Class #1 (1/15) Atoms & Molecules

Reading : Chapter 1 & Chapter 2

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • define the words “atom” and “molecule” in your own words.
  • paraphrase the atomic theory of matter.
  • recognize various representations for molecules, including formulas, models, and structural drawings.
  • obtain a correct chemical formula from a line drawing of an organic molecule.
  • perform simple unit conversions and numerical calculations involving numbers in scientific notation and/or units with common metric prefixes.

 

Class #2 (1/17) Molecules and Moles

Reading: Chapter 3 (mainly 3.4 & 3.5)

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • explain the definition of a mole in your own words.
  • calculate the molar mass of a substance from its chemical formula.
  • interconvert between mass, number of molecules, and number of moles.
  • calculate the mass % composition of a substance from its chemical formula.
  • determine a chemical formula from elemental analysis data ( i.e. , from % composition).

 

Week #2 NOTE: No class M. MLK Day.

Class #3 (1/22) Introduction to Chemical Reactions

Reading : 3.2, 3.4

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • recognize some common types of chemical reactions (decomposition, combustion, etc.).
  • explain balancing a chemical equation as an application of the law of conservation of mass.
  • list at least 3 quantities which must be conserved in chemical reactions.
  • write balanced chemical equations for simple reactions, given either an unbalanced equation or a verbal description ( i.e. , nitrogen and hydrogen gases react under appropriate conditions to form gaseous ammonia (NH3)).
  • interpret chemical equations in terms of both moles and molecules.

 

Class #4 (1/24) Solutions & Ions

Reading : Sections 2.6, 2.7, 3.3

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • define the concentration of a solution, and calculate the molarity of solutions from various data.
  • distinguish between electrolytes and non-electrolytes, and explain how their solutions differ.
  • describe the species expected to be present (ions, molecules, etc.) in various simple solutions.
  • recognize some ionic compounds from their formulas.

 

Week #3

Class #5 (1/27) Reaction Stoichiometry

Reading: Section 4.2

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • calculate the amount of product expected to be formed in a chemical reaction, given the amounts of reactants used. ("Amount" might refer to either mass or number of moles.)
  • calculate the amount(s) of reactants which need to be used in a chemical reaction in order to produce a specified amount of product. ("Amount" might refer to either mass or number of moles.)

 

Class #6 (1/29) Limiting Reagents

Reading: Sections 4.2. 4.3

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • identify a limiting reagent and calculate the amount of product formed from a non-stoichiometric mixture of reactants.

 

Class #7 (1/31) Reactions in Solution, Acids & Bases

Reading : Sections 3.3, 4.5

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • write both molecular and ionic equations for solution reactions.
  • define acid and base.
  • identify some common acids and bases.
  • distinguish between strong and weak acids or bases, and describe the species expected to be present in their solutions.
  • write equations for acid-base reactions.
  • calculate solution concentrations from titration data.

 

Week #4

Class #8 (2/3) Solution Stoichiometry

Reading: Sections 3.3, 4.5

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • perform stoichiometric calculations involving reactions in solutions, including precipitation reactions.

 

Class #9 (2/5) Introduction to Gases

Reading: Sections 5.1 - 5.3

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • describe experiments that lead to the gas laws as empirical observations.
  • perform simple gas calculations.

 

Exam #1 (2/7)

Reading: None

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • demonstrate your mastery of the material from Classes 1 - 8.

 

Week #5

Class #10 (2/10) The Ideal Gas Law & the Kinetic Theory of Gases

Reading: Sections 5.3, 5.4. 5.6

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • perform simple gas calculations.
  • state the postulates of the kinetic theory of gases.
  • describe how the postulates of kinetic theory account for the gas laws (qualitatively).
  • identify conditions under which gases might behave non-ideally.
  • describe the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of speeds, and the effect of temperature and molar mass on molecular speed.

 

Class #11 (2/12) Gases: Molecular Speeds & Stoichiometry

Reading: Sections 5.5 & 5.6

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • perform stoichiometric calculations for reactions involving gases as reactants or products.

 

Class #12 (2/14) Light: The Wave Particle Duality

Reading: Sections 6.1 & 6.2

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • describe waves in terms of frequency, wavelength, and amplitude.
  • interconvert between frequency, wavelength, and amplitude for light.
  • describe interference as a wave property.
  • relate properties of light such as color and brightness to wave characteristics (i.e., lambda, nu, etc.).
  • describe the photoelectric effect by stating what sort of experiment is involved and what results are seen.
  • explain how the results of the photoelectric effect experiment are consistent with a photon model of light.
  • use the Planck equation to calculate the energy of a photon from wavelength or frequency.

 

Week #6

Class #13 (2/17) Spectra and Energy Levels

Reading: Section 6.3

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • describe in your own words what is seen when atoms absorb or emit light.
  • use conservation of energy ideas to explain how the observation of atomic spectra implies that atoms have quantized energies.
  • draw an energy level diagram for a simple atom.
  • use an energy level diagram to predict the wavelengths or frequencies of light an atom will absorb or emit, or use the observed wavelengths or frequencies to determine the allowed energy levels.

 

Class #14 (2/19) Atoms, Electrons & Energy Levels

Reading: Sections 6.3 & 6.4

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • define ionization energy.
  • appreciate that the idea of energy levels has its origins in measurable experimental data.
  • describe what happens in photoelectric spectroscopy, and explain how the results show that electrons in atoms have only certain allowed energies.
  • given a photoelectron spectrum, determine the element to which the data correspond.

 

Class #15 (2/21) Electrons, Quantum Numbers, and Orbitals

Reading: Section 6.4

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • paraphrase the uncertainty principle.
  • recognize how quantum numbers arise as a consequence of the wave model.
  • define the term "orbital."
  • state the meanings of the quantum numbers n, l, ml, and ms, and list the allowed values for each quantum number.
  • identify an orbital (as 1s, 3p, etc.) from its quantum numbers, or vice versa.
  • list the number of orbitals of each type (1s, 3p, etc.) in an atom.

 

Week #7

Class #16 (2/24) Atomic Orbitals: Size, Shape, & Energy

Reading: Sections 6.4 - 6.6

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • sketch the shapes of s and p type orbitals, and recognize orbitals by their shapes.
  • rank various orbitals in terms of size and energy.
  • describe the role of screening in determining orbital size and energy.
  • use the Pauli exclusion principle and Hund's rule to write electron configurations for atoms and ions of representative elements.
  • explain the connection between valence electron configurations and the periodic table.

 

Class #17 (2/26) Electron Configuration & Periodic Properties

Reading: Sections 6.6 & 6.7

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • define the following properties of atoms: atomic radius, ionization energy, electron affinity.
  • state how the above properties vary with position in the periodic table.
  • explain the periodic variation of atomic properties in terms of orbitals and shielding.
  • list several physical properties which distinguish metals and non-metals.
  • use electron configurations to explain why metals tend to form cations while non-metals tend to form anions.

 

Class #18 (2/28) Chemical Bonding & Lewis Structures

Reading: Sections 7.1 - 7.5

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • define electronegativity, and state how electronegativity varies with position in the periodic table.
  • recognize how quantum numbers arise as a consequence of the wave model.
  • identify/predict polar, non-polar, and ionic bonds by comparing electronegativities.
  • write Lewis electron structures for simple molecules or ions.

 

Week #8

Class #19 (3/3) Lewis Structures & Orbital Overlap

Reading: Sections 7.5, 7.6

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • write Lewis electron structures for simple molecules or ions.
  • describe chemical bonding in simple molecules using a model based on the overlap of atomic orbitals.
  • recognize some of the limitations of this simple model.

 

Exam #2 (3/5)

Reading: None

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • demonstrate your mastery of the material from Classes 9 - 19.

 

Week of March 10-14: Spring Break - No Classes

 

Week #9

Class #20 (3/17) Molecular Geometry

Reading: Sections 7.7 & 7.8

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • appreciate that molecular geometries can be measured experimentally.
  • state how hybridization reconciles observed molecular shapes with the orbital overlap model.
  • predict the geometry of a molecule from its Lewis structure.
  • rationalize common molecular geometries in terms of orbital overlap and hybridization.

 

Class #21 (3/19) Molecular Geometries: Multiple Bonds

Reading: Sections 7.7 & 7.8

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • use models (real and/or software) to help visualize the common molecular shapes.
  • use the basic shapes we've examined to determine the geometry of larger molecules.
  • explain the formation of multiple bonds in terms of overlap of a combination of hybridized and unhybridized atomic orbitals.
  • identify sigma and pi bonds in a molecule, and explain the difference between them.

 

Class #22 (3/21) Bonding in Solids: Metals & Insulators

Reading: Section 8.3

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • explain how band diagrams can be used to represent the bonding in an extended solid structure.
  • draw band diagrams for metals and insulators
  • identify a material as metal or insulator from its band diagram.
  • explain how the electrical properties of metals and insulators are related to their chemical bonding.

 

Week #10

Class #23 (3/24) Bonding in Solids: Semiconductors

Reading: Section 8.3

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • draw band diagrams for semiconductors (including n- and p-type devices).
  • identify a material as metal, insulator, or semiconductor from its band diagram.
  • explain how the electrical properties of metals, insulators, and semiconductors are related to their chemical bonding.

 

Class #24 (3/26) Chemical Energetics

Reading: Sections 9.1 - 9.3

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • use tabulated bond energies to obtain approximate values of ΔE for chemical reactions.
  • define exothermic and endothermic in your own words.
  • explain (in your own words) the significance of kinetic and thermodynamic factors in controlling chemical reactions.

 

Class #25 (3/28) Thermodynamics: First Law & Calorimetry

Reading: Sections 9.3 & 9.4

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • define work and heat using the standard sign conventions explained in your book.
  • define state functions, and explain their importance.
  • state the first law of thermodynamics in word and in equation forms.
  • use experimental data to obtain values for ΔE for a chemical reaction.

 

Week #11

Class #26 (3/31) Calorimetry & Enthalpy

Reading: Sections 9.4, 9.5

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • use experimental data to obtain values for ΔE and ΔH for chemical reactions.
  • define ΔHf.
  • write formation reactions for compounds.

 

Class #27 (4/2) Enthalpy & Hess's Law

Reading: Sections 9.5, 9.6

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • explain Hess's Law in your own words.
  • calculate the amount of energy liberated or consumed in chemical reactions from tabulated data.
  • obtain thermodynamic data (i.e., ΔHf) from lab measurements.

 

Class #28 (4/4) Entropy & The Second Law

Reading: Sections 10.1 - 10.5

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • explain entropy in your own words in terms of atomic and molecular order.
  • deduce the sign of ΔS for many chemical reactions by examining the physical state of the reactants and products.
  • state the Second Law of Thermodynamics, in words and equations, and use it to predict spontaneity.
  • state the Third Law of Thermodynamics.
  • use tabulated data to calculate ΔS for a chemical reaction.

 

Week #12

Class #29 (4/7) Entropy, Free Energy & Spontaneity

Reading: Sections 10.4 - 10.7

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • state the Third Law of Thermodynamics.
  • use tabulated data to calculate ΔS for a chemical reaction.
  • use tabulated data to predict the spontaneity of a chemical reaction.
  • derive the relationship between the free energy change of a system and the entropy change of the universe.
  • use tabulated data to calculate the free energy change for a chemical reaction.
  • explain the role of temperature in determining whether a reaction is spontaneous.
  • use tabulated data to determine the temperature range for which a reaction will be spontaneous.

 

Exam #3 (4/9)

Reading: None

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • demonstrate your mastery of the material from Classes 20 - 29.

 

Class #30 (4/11) Introduction to Chemical Kinetics

Reading: Sections 11.1 - 11.3

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • define the rate of a chemical reaction, and express the rate in terms of the various reactants or products.
  • use experimental data to determine rate laws for reactions by the method of initial rates.

 

Week #12 NOTE: No classes Friday - Reading Day

Class #31 (4/14) Kinetics: Integrated Rate Laws

Reading: Sections 11.3, 11.4

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • use experimental data to determine rate laws for reactions using graphical methods.

 

Class #32 (4/16) Reaction Rates & Mechanisms

Reading: Sections 11.6

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • distinguish between elementary reactions and multi-step reactions.
  • find the rate law predicted for a particular reaction mechanism.
  • derive rate laws from mechanisms.

 

Week #14

Class #33 (4/21) Arrhenius Equation, Molecular Collisions, & Reaction Rates

Reading: Section 11.5

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

    
  • explain (in your own words) the significance of the terms in the Arrhenius equation based on collision theory.
  • calculate the activation energy for a reaction from experimental data.

Class #34 (4/23) Chemical Equilibrium

Reading: Sections 12.2, 12.3

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • realize that equilibrium is dynamic, and that at equilibrium, the forward and backward reaction rates are equal. Be able to state these ideas in your own words.
  • define the equilibrium constant for a reversible reaction.
  • calculate equilibrium constants from experimental data.

 

Class #34 (4/25) Chemical Equilibrium

Reading: Sections 12.4, 12.5

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

  • calculate equilibrium composition from initial data and equilibrium constant.

 

 

Week #15 NOTE: Final exams begin on Friday!

Class #35 (4/28) LeChatelier's Principle

Reading: Sections 12.5, 12.8

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

    
  • explain the response of an equilibrium system to applied stresses: LeChatelier's Principle.
  • calculate the new equilibrium composition of a system after an applied stress.
  • explain the connection between Keq and ΔG.

 

Class #36 (4/29) Review for Final Exam (Redefined day - F classes meet!)

Reading: None

Learning objectives:

Be able to...

    
  • Demonstrate your mastery of the course material.